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Bhutan: Conservation and Environmental Protection in the Himalayas

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Bhutan: Conservation and Environmental Protection in the Himalayas



von: Ugyen Tshewang, Michael Charles Tobias, Jane Gray Morrison

149,79 €

Verlag: Springer
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 15.01.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9783030578244
Sprache: englisch

Dieses eBook enthält ein Wasserzeichen.

Beschreibungen

<p>Located in the heart of the Eastern Himalayas, Bhutan practices the philosophy of Gross National Happiness (“GNH”) that embraces environmental conservation as one of the main building blocks for its sustainable development goals. Bhutan’s conservation strategies and success are largely driven by the strong political will and visionary leadership of His Majesty the King of Bhutan&nbsp;The nation’s Buddhist perspectives regarding a deep and abiding respect for nature; and the strategic enforcement of a wide-ranging stringent set of internal regulations and controls have helped ensure ecological gold standards in Bhutan. Moreover, the country is an active member of the international conservation community by fulfilling its implementation of various Multilateral Environment Agreements. While it emerged into the 21st century as one of the 36 global terrestrial “hotspots” in biological diversity conservation ranks, Bhutan’s sheer commitment with more than 51% of its territory being managed under the explicit status of a protected area network, and more than 70% of the land under forest cover, represents&nbsp;Bhutan’s exemplary dedication to protect the planet despite its smallness in size and economy, and the biological fragility exemplified by its hotspot situation.&nbsp; In the face of imminent severe threats of global warming, Bhutan nonetheless exemplifies the truth that “a small country with a big conservation commitment” can make an enormous contribution to the global community.</p><p>At the regional level, Bhutan is intent upon protecting the Water Towers of Asia (that glacial expanse of the Himalayas) which is a critical resource bulwark&nbsp;for about&nbsp;one-fifth of the global population downstream in South Asia. Such protections invariably help mitigate climate change by acting as a nation-wide carbon sink through its carbon neutral policies.&nbsp; In short, Bhutan has long represented one of the world’s foremost&nbsp;national guardians&nbsp;of biodiversity conservation, ecological good governance, and societal sustainability at a period when the world has entered the Anthropocene – an epoch of mass extinctions.</p><p>We envision this publication to be&nbsp;ecologically and ethically&nbsp;provocative and revealing for the concerned scientific communities, and governments. Through an extensive review of the scientific and anthropological literature, as well as the research team's own data, the Author's have set forth timely recommendations for conservation policies, strategies and actions. This book provides technical and deeply considered assessments of the state of Bhutan’s environment, its multiple, human-induced stressors and pressures; as well as extremely sound, practical techniques that would address conservation strategies in the Himalayas and, by implication, worldwide.</p><p></p><p></p>
<p><b>FOREWORD </b>by Dr Lotay Tshering, Prime Minister, Royal Government of Bhutan<b></b></p>

<p>PREFACE by<b> </b>H.E. Lyonpo Yeshey Penjore, Honourable Minister for Agriculture and Forest, Royal Government of Bhutan<b></b></p>

<p>CHAPTER 1:&nbsp; STATE OF ENVIRONMENT IN BHUTAN&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </p>

<p>Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 1</p>

Overview of Bhutan&nbsp;&nbsp; 1<p></p>

<p>Ecological Zones & Climatic Features&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 4</p>

Land Use in Bhutan&nbsp;&nbsp; 5<p></p>

<p>Source: FRMD/DOFPS 10</p>

Conservation&nbsp; Efforts & Protected Area Systems&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 10<p></p>

<p>Conservation Laws and Policies&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 13</p>

Assessment of Non-Protected Areas&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 14<p></p>

<p>Sustainable Forest Management Plans in Non-protected Area&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 15</p>

Scientific Forest Management&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 16<p></p>

<p>Community Forest Empowerment&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 16</p>

Non-Wood Forest Product (NWFP) Management&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 17<p></p>

<p>Plantation and Reforestation Programs&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 18</p>

Keystone species and Conservation Areas&nbsp;&nbsp; 18<p></p>

<p>Foot Notes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 18</p>

Annexure 1.1 Classification and Characteristics of Vegetation Zones in Bhutan (Grierson & Long, 1983, see 19) 22<p></p>

<p>Annexure 1.2 Description of Classification of Land Cover Class and Sub-Class in Bhutan (See 20)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 25</p>

<p><b>CHAPTER 2:&nbsp; DRIVERS AND PRESSURE ON THE STATE OF ENVIRONMENT IN BHUTAN&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </b></p>

<p>Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 27</p>

<p>Land Use&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 31</p>

<p>Hydropower projects 32</p>

Farm Roads&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 33<p></p>

<p>Mining and Mineral Development:&nbsp;&nbsp; 36</p>

Land use for Agriculture&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 38<p></p>

<p>Waste Management&nbsp; 42</p>

Figure 2.6 Waste Generated (tons/day) Dzongkhag wise&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 44<p></p>

<p>Fuel wood consumption&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 45</p>

Fig. 2.7 Fuel Wood Supply in Bhutan&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 46<p></p>

<p>Timber Production&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 47</p>

Forest Fires&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 51<p></p>

<p>Livestock Grazing&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 52</p>

Air Pollution and Fossil Fuels:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 54<p></p>

<p>Fig.&nbsp; 2.10 Fossil Fuel Consumption in Bhutan Source: Environment Accounting, 2018)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 54</p>

<p>Demographic and Poverty factors:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 61</p>

<p>Invasive Alien Plant Species&nbsp; 64</p>

Climate change&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 66<p></p>

<p>Foot Notes (1- 157)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 72</p>

Annexure 2.1 List of Invasive Species in Bhutan&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 83<p></p>

<p><b>CHAPTER 3:&nbsp; NON-VIOLENT TECHNIQUES FOR HUMAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICT RESOLUTION</b></p>

Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 88<p></p>

<p>Contextual Framework within the ACPB:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 88</p>

Methodology: 90<p></p>

<p>Global context of HWC&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 90</p>

Conflict Management Strategies:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 94<p></p>

<p>Retaliatory Actions and Violent Approaches&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 94</p>

Lethal Control – Counterproductive 96<p></p>

<p>From Conflict to Co-existence&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 98</p>

Safe and Non-Violent Approach&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 99<p></p>

<p>Table 3.1 Important Elements of HWC (WWF-Bhutan, 2016; See Foot Note 78)&nbsp; 99</p>

Human Wildlife Conflict Policy&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 100<p></p>

<p>Implementing Agencies for HWC&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 102</p>

Immune-contraception for population control&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 109<p></p>

<p>Translocation of Problem Animals&nbsp;&nbsp; 111</p>

Alternative Livelihoods&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 113<p></p>

<p>Land-Use Planning and Landscape Management&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 113</p>

Mitigation Measures 114<p></p>

<p>Compensation&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 115</p>

Performance payments&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 117<p></p>

<p>Ecotourism and Revenue Sharing&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 119</p>

Community Education&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 120<p></p>

<p>Understanding the Conflict Profile&nbsp;&nbsp; 121</p>

Reporting&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 122<p></p>

<p>Information compilation, management and use:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 123</p>

Response - measures taken to alleviate a specific or ongoing HWC incident&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 123<p></p>

<p>Monitoring and Evaluation - measuring the performance of HWC management 124</p>

Human Wildlife Conflict Situation in Bhutan&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 124<p></p>

<p>Underlying Forces of Human Wild-life Conflicts in Bhutan 124</p>

Human Wildlife Conflict Situation in Bhutan&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 125<p></p>

<p>Preventive Measures 128</p>

Mitigation Approach in Bhutan&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 131<p></p>

<p>Strategic Outcomes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 132</p>

Table 3.5 Strategic Intents contributing to the Safe System (WWF-Bhutan, 2016; See Foot Note 246).&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 132<p></p>

<p>Effective Monitoring and Evaluation&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 133</p>

<p>Conclusion and Recommendation&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 134</p>

<p>Non-violent and Safe Approach&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 134</p>

Institutional Arrangement&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 135<p></p>

<p>Human Wildlife Conflict Policy & Legislation&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 136</p>

Coping Techniques and Mechanisms&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 137<p></p>

<p>Hotspot Mapping&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 139</p>

Physiological Sterilization of wildlife.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 139<p></p>

<p>Table 3.6 Immunocontraceptive vaccines used in different animals:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 141</p>

Innovative Research Fund for farmers&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 142<p></p>

<p>Economic Responses to HWC&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 142</p>

Alternative livelihoods&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 143<p></p>

<p>Regional Transboundary Conservation&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 143</p>

Foot Notes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 144<p></p>

<p>Annexure 3.1 Indicators of the Strategic Outcomes of People, Wildlife, Assets and Habitat&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 164</p>

<b>CHAPTER 4:&nbsp; ANIMAL RIGHTS AND PROTECTION</b><p></p>

<p>Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 167</p>

Buddhist Perspectives & Conservation Biology&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 174<p></p>

<p>Bhutanese Buddhism and the Segue To Contemporary Animal Protection Policies&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 177</p>

National Law & Buddhist Ethics&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 179<p></p>

<p>State Monastic Body&nbsp; 181</p>

Non-governmental Organizations (NGO)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 182<p></p>

<p>Tshethar (Life Saving) Practices&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 183</p>

Animal Health and Rescue Centers&nbsp; 185<p></p>

<p>Farming Systems and Livestock Population 186</p>

Meat Consumption in Bhutan&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 188<p></p>

<p>Discussion and Recommendations on Animal Protection and Animal Rights&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 199</p>

Animal Protection Policy of Bhutan&nbsp; 199<p></p>

<p>Population control of Livestock Animals&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 200</p>

Institutionalization and Implementation Arrangement&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 200<p></p>

<p>Monitoring & Implementation&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 201</p>

Dog Population Control&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 202<p></p>

<p>GNH Index for Animal Kingdom&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 205</p>

References (1-125)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 206<p></p>

<p>Annexure 4.1 God’s Country: The New Zealand Factor, by Michael Charles Tobias and Jane Gray Morrison, Dancing Star Foundation, 2010.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 215</p>

<b>CHAPTER 5:&nbsp; GAP ANALYSIS OF THREATENED, RARE AND UNDER-REPRESENTED SPECIES IN BHUTAN</b><p></p>

<p>Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 222</p>

Introduction&nbsp;&nbsp; 222<p></p>

<p>Impacts of Extinction of Species&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 226</p>

Taxonomic Classification – Seven Kingdoms Model&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 227<p></p>

<p>Objectives&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 227</p>

Methodology&nbsp; 227<p></p>

<p>Assessment of Under-Represented Species in Kingdoms&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 228</p>

Under-Represented Species in Classification of Groups&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 231<p></p>

<p>Records of Species Groups under Animalia Kingdom&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 233</p>

Vertebrates&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 233<p></p>

<p>Invertebrates&nbsp; 235</p>

Species Groups under Plantae Kingdom&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 236<p></p>

<p>Tracheophytes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 237</p>

Chromista Kingdom&nbsp;&nbsp; 238<p></p>

<p>Fungi Kingdom&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 239</p>

Protista Kingdom&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 241<p></p>

<p>Eubacteria Kingdom&nbsp;&nbsp; 242</p>

Archaebacteria Kingdom&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 243<p></p>

<p>Assessment of Threatened Species&nbsp; 243</p>

Conservation Status of Fish in Bhutan&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 246<p></p>

<p>Threatened Endemic Plants in Bhutan&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 247</p>

Under-Representation of Medicinal Plants&nbsp; 276<p></p>

<p>Documentation of Agro-Biodiversity&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 277</p>

Community Participation and Citizen Science&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 277<p></p>

<p>Discussion and Recommendations&nbsp;&nbsp; 278</p>

Foot Notes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 280<p></p>

<p>Annexure 5.1 List of Threatened Species of Plants (IUCN Status-2019)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 284</p>

Annexure 5.2 List of Threatened Species of Mammals in Bhutan (IUCN Status-2019)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 285<p></p>

<p>Annexure 5.3 List of Threatened Species of Birds in Bhutan (IUCN) – 2019 NBC&nbsp; 287</p>

<p>Annexure 5.4 List of Threatened Fish Species&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 289</p>

<p>Annexure 5.5: List of Threatened Amphibian and Reptile Species 290</p>

<p>Annexure 5.6 Monotypic Species of Seed Plants under each Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species (Source Flora of Bhutan, Volume 1, 2 & 3)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 290</p>

<p><b>CHAPTER 6:&nbsp; CONSERVATION STRATEGY OF THREATENED AND UNDER-REPRESENTED MAMMALIAN SPECIES</b></p>

<p>Introduction.&nbsp; 293</p>

<p>Landscape Conservation Approach&nbsp; 293</p>

Mammalian species&nbsp;&nbsp; 294<p></p>

<p>Chinese Pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) Conservation&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 294</p>

Recommendations for Conservation Strategies&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 295<p></p>

<p>Pygmy Hog (Sus salvanius) Conservation&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 296</p>

Recommendation for Conservation Strategy of Pygmy Hog (Sus salvanius)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 297<p></p>

<p>Alpine Musk Deer (Moschus Chrysogaster) and Himalayan Musk Deer (Moschus leucogaster) Conservation&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 297</p>

<p>Recommendations for Conservation Strategy of Musk Deer&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 299</p>

<p>Dhole (Cuon alpinus) Conservation Strategy&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 299</p>

<p>Recommendations for Dhole Conservation Strategy&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 300</p>

<p>Golden Langur (Trachypithecus geei) Conservation Strategy&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 301</p>

<p>Recommendation for Conservation Strategy of Golden Langur&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 301</p>

<p>Conservation of Arunachal Macaque (Macaca munzala)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 302</p>

<p>Conservation of Hispid Hare (Caprolagus hispidus)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 303</p>

<p>Conservation of Hog Deer (Axis Porcinus)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 303</p>

<p>Wild Water Buffalo (Bubalus arnee) Conservation 305</p>

<p>Discussion on Conservation of Bats 306</p>

Foot Notes (1-131)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 309<p></p>

<p><b>CHAPTER 7:&nbsp; CONSERVATION OF THREATENED AND UNDER-REPRESENTED SPECIES OF PLANTS</b></p>

Introduction&nbsp;&nbsp; 322<p></p>

<p>Endemic Plant Species&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 323</p>

Monotypic Plant Species&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 323<p></p>

<p>Discussion on Threatened Orchids&nbsp;&nbsp; 323</p>

Critically Endangered flowering plants&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 325<p></p>

<p>Endangered Flowering Plants:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 325</p>

Recommendations for Conservation Strategy of Plant Species&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 326<p></p>

<p>Conservation of Bryophytes&nbsp; 328</p>

Ecological significance of Bryophytes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 329<p></p>

<p>Economic Uses of Bryophytes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 329</p>

Medicinal Use of Bryophytes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 329<p></p>

<p>Bryophytes as Pollution indicators&nbsp;&nbsp; 329</p>

Bryophytes in Science and Education&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 330<p></p>

<p>Threats to Bryophytes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 330</p>

Lesser Known Timber Species in Bhutan&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 331<p></p>

<p>Foot Notes&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 332</p>

Annexure 7.1&nbsp;&nbsp; Most commonly used timber species (Source: FRMD/DoFPS)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 337<p></p>

<p>Annexure 7.2&nbsp; High value timber with less utilization (Source: FRMD/DoFPS)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 338</p>

<p><b>CHAPTER 8:&nbsp; CONSERVATION OF THREATENED BIRDS, REPTILES, FISHES AND PARASITES</b></p>

<p>Birds Conservation&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 339</p>

<p>Conservation of White Bellied Heron (Ardea insignis)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 340</p>

<p>Conservation of Vultures&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 341</p>

<p>Discussion on Conservation of White Winged Duck&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 342</p>

<p>Conservation Strategy of Baer’s Pochard&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 342</p>

<p>Conservation Strategy of Eagles&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 343</p>

<p>Recommendations for Conservation Strategy of Threatened Birds&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 343</p>

<p>Conservation of Turtles&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 344</p>

<p>Importance of Turtle Conservation&nbsp; 345</p>

Conservation Strategies&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 346<p></p>

<p>Conservation of Threatened Fish Species&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 346</p>

<p>CHAPTER 9:&nbsp; CONSERVATION FOR FOOD SECURITY AND UNDER-REPRESENTED MICROBES</p>

<p>Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 362</p>

Conservation of Crop Genetic Resources&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 362<p></p>

<p>Agro-Biodiversity Gene Banks&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 363</p>

Preservation under Permafrost Conditions 363<p></p>

<p>Microbial Conservation Strategies&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 364</p>

<p>FOOT NOTES</p><br>
<div><b>Ugyen Tshewang</b> is the first Bhutanese scientist who received his PhD in natural science and ecodynamics affecting livestock and populations at the University of Queensland, Australia. During his long illustrious career in the Royal Government of Bhutan, he was the Secretary of National Environment Commission – the country’s apex institution of environment sector, founding Director of the National Biodiversity Centre establishing the National Gene Bank, the National Herbarium and Botanic Gardens; and served as the Governor of the country’s eastern-most province, Trashiyangtse.&nbsp; Besides his numerous research publications, he led the task force representing multiple stakeholders to develop the Biodiversity Act and various environmental laws and policies of the country. Dr Tshewang was also the national focal point for Multilateral Environment Agreements dealing with the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the Basel Convention and the Montreal Protocol.<br></div><div><b><br></b></div><div><b>Michael Charles Tobias</b> is a global ecologist, anthropologist, historian, explorer, author and filmmaker. He obtained his Ph.D. in the Department of History of Consciousness from the University of California-Santa Cruz and has conducted field-research in nearly 100 countries.. Tobias is the author of more than 45 books (both fiction and non-fiction, as well as several edited anthologies). In addition to his numerous books and published research papers, he has written, directed, produced, executive produced or co-executive produced well over 100 films – TV series, documentaries and dramas, most pertaining to environmental, cultural, social or scientific issues. A former Professor at Dartmouth, the University of California-Santa Barbara, the University of New Mexico-Albuquerque and elsewhere. In 1996, Dr Tobias received the "Courage of Conscience Award" for his commitment to nature and non-violence. In 2004 he was the recipient of the Parabola Focus Award for his long-standing body of work aimed at creating a better world. Dr. Tobias is the long-time President of the Dancing Star Foundation (www.dancingstarfoundation.org).<br></div><div><br></div><div><b>Jane Gray Morrison</b> is an ecologist whose work has taken her to over 30 countries. As a filmmaker, Ms. Morrison has produced numerous films for such networks as Discovery, PBS (where she also Co-Directed "A Day in the Life of Ireland" for Irish Television and WNET/New York), “Hotspots” (www.hotspots-thefilm.com) and Turner Broadcasting for which she served as Senior Producer for "Voice of the Planet," a 10-hour dramatic series based upon the history of life on Earth. Her books include "Sanctuary: Global Oases of Innocence" (www.sanctuary-thebook.com; “Donkey: The Mystique of Equus Asinus;” “God’s Country: The New Zealand Factor;” and “No Vacancy.” She has co-written five books published by Springer. Since 1999, Jane Morrison has served as the Executive Vice President of Dancing Star Foundation a non-profit organization that focuses on the interdisciplinary humanities and social justice movements as they concern humankind's relationship to the natural world.<br></div>
<p>Located in the heart of the Eastern Himalayas, Bhutan practices the philosophy of Gross National Happiness (“GNH”) that embraces environmental conservation as one of the main building blocks for its sustainable development goals. Bhutan’s conservation strategies and success are largely driven by the strong political will and visionary leadership of His Majesty the King of Bhutan&nbsp;The nation’s Buddhist perspectives regarding a deep and abiding respect for nature; and the strategic enforcement of a wide-ranging stringent set of internal regulations and controls have helped ensure ecological gold standards in Bhutan. Moreover, the country is an active member of the international conservation community by fulfilling its implementation of various Multilateral Environment Agreements. While it emerged into the 21st century as one of the 36 global terrestrial “hotspots” in biological diversity conservation ranks, Bhutan’s sheer commitment with more than 51% of its territory being managed under the explicit status of a protected area network, and more than 70% of the land under forest cover, represents&nbsp;Bhutan’s exemplary dedication to protect the planet despite its smallness in size and economy, and the biological fragility exemplified by its hotspot situation.&nbsp; In the face of imminent severe threats of global warming, Bhutan nonetheless exemplifies the truth that “a small country with a big conservation commitment” can make an enormous contribution to the global community.</p><p>At the regional level, Bhutan is intent upon protecting the Water Towers of Asia (that glacial expanse of the Himalayas) which is a critical resource bulwark&nbsp;for about&nbsp;one-fifth of the global population downstream in South Asia. Such protections invariably help mitigate climate change by acting as a nation-wide carbon sink through its carbon neutral policies.&nbsp; In short, Bhutan has long represented one of the world’s foremost&nbsp;national guardians&nbsp;of biodiversity conservation, ecological good governance, and societal sustainability at a period when the world has entered the Anthropocene – an epoch of mass extinctions.</p><p>We envision this publication to be&nbsp;ecologically and ethically&nbsp;provocative and revealing for the concerned scientific communities, and governments. Through an extensive review of the scientific and anthropological literature, as well as the research team's own data, the Author's have set forth timely recommendations for conservation policies, strategies and actions. This book provides technical and deeply considered assessments of the state of Bhutan’s environment, its multiple, human-induced stressors and pressures; as well as extremely sound, practical techniques that would address conservation strategies in the Himalayas and, by implication, worldwide.<br></p>
<p>Bhutanese ecology as never before seen from the inside by one of the country’s leading scientists, with both top government and top research experience backing his unique contribution to the book.</p>Unique point-of-view on a subject of intense interest to environmentalists and policy planners concerned with maintaining indigenous traditions in a world now challenged by climate change.<p></p>

<p>The combining of far-reaching multidisciplinary contexts, with an efficient, highly compact compendium-type work makes this the ideal book on Bhutanese ecology, and it promises a significant shelf-life.</p>With Foreword by Dr Lotay Tshering, Prime Minister of the Royal Government of Bhutan and Preface by H.E. Lyonpo Yeshey Penjore, Honourable Minister for Agriculture and Forest, Royal Government of Bhutan<br>

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von: Iain Gordon, Cristian Bonacic, Jessica Gimpel, Pete Goddard, Desmond McNeill, Gabriela Lichtenstein, Renaudeau d' Arc Nadine, Kristi Anne Stølen, Javier García Gomez, Ana Wawrzyk, Jane C. Wheeler, Hugo Yacobaccio, Jerry Laker, Marcelo Cassini, Mariela Borgnia, Yanina Arzamendia, Verónica Benítez, Bibiana Vilá
Preis: 106,99 €
Saving Biological Diversity
Saving Biological Diversity
von: Robert A. Askins, Glenn D. Dreyer, Gerald R. Visgilio, Diana M. Whitelaw
Preis: 139,09 €
Martens and Fishers (Martes) in Human-Altered Environments
Martens and Fishers (Martes) in Human-Altered Environments
von: Daniel J. Harrison, Angela K. Fuller, Gilbert Proulx
Preis: 106,99 €