Physical ModelsTheir historical and current use in civil and building engineering design
Edition Bautechnikgeschichte / Construction History 1. Aufl.
|Verlag:||Ernst & Sohn|
Physical models have been, and continue to be used by engineers when faced with unprecedented challenges, when engineering science has been non-existent or inadequate, and in any other situation when the engineer has needed to raise their confidence in a design proposal to a sufficient level to begin construction. For this reason, models have mostly been used by designers and constructors of highly innovative projects, when previous experience has not been available.<br> The book covers the history of using of physical models in the design and development of civil and building engineering projects including bridges in the mid-18th century, William Fairbairn?s Britannia bridge in the 1840s, the masonry Aswan Dam in the 1890s, concrete dams in the 1920s, thin concrete shell roofs and the dynamic behaviour of tall buildings in earthquakes from the 1930s, tidal flow in estuaries and the acoustics of concert halls from the 1950s, and cable-net and membrane structures in the 1960s.<br> Traditionally, progress in engineering has been attributed to the creation and use of engineering science, the understanding materials properties and the development of new construction methods. The book argues that the use of reduced scale models have played an equally important part in the development of civil and building engineering. However, like the history of engineering design itself, this crucial contribution has not been widely reported or celebrated. <br> The book concludes with reviews of the current use of physical models alongside computer models, for example, in boundary layer wind tunnels, room acoustics, seismic engineering, hydrology, and air flow in buildings.<br>
Preface Construction History Series (by Karl-Eugen Kurrer)<br> Foreword (by Werner Sobek)<br> Introduction (by Bill Addis)<br> SECTION A -<br> PHYSICAL MODELS FROM ANCIENT TIMES TO THE 1880s<br> 1 Dirk Buhler: Models in civil engineering from ancient times to the Industrial Revolution<br> 2 Santiago Huerta: Block models of the masonry arch and vault<br> 3 Rainer Graefe: The catenary and the line of thrust as a means for shaping arches and vaults<br> 4 Andreas Kahlow: Leonhard Euler and the model tests for a 300 metre timber arched bridge in St. Petersburg<br> 5 Dennis Smith: The use of models in early nineteenth-century British suspension bridge design<br> 6 Bill Addis: Models used during the design of the Conwy and Britannia tubular bridges<br> SECTION B -<br> PHYSICAL MODELS USED IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN, 1890s-1930s<br> 7 Mike Chrimes: The use of models to inform the structural design of dams, 1890-1940<br> 8 Bill Addis: Models used during the design of the Boulder Dam<br> 9 Roland May: The role of models in the early development of Zeiss-Dywidag shells<br> 10 Mario Chiorino & Gabriele Neri: Model testing of structures in pre-war Italy; the School of Arturo Danusso<br> 11 Joaquin Antuna: Eduardo Torroja and his use of models up to 1936<br> 12 Bill Addis: Photoelastic stress analysis<br> SECTION C -<br> PHYSICAL MODELS USED IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN, 1940s TO 1980s<br> 13 Bernard Espion: Structural modelling technique<br> 14 Christiane Weber: Physical modelling at the University of Stuttgart<br> 15 Mario Chiorino & Gabriele Neri: Model testing of structures in post-war Italy: the activity of ISMES 1951-1974<br> 16 Joaquin Antuna: Eduardo Torroja and his use of models from 1939<br> 17 Edwin Trout: Scale models for structural testing at the Cement and Concrete Association, UK: 1951-73<br> 18 Pepa Casinello: Heinz Hossdorf: his contribution to the development of physical model testing<br> 19 Berthold Burkhardt: Soap film and soap bubble models<br> 20 Lukas Ingold: The model as an ideal building: the origins of the design methods of Sergio Musmeci<br> 21 John Chilton: Heinz Isler and his use of physical models<br> 22 Ian Liddell: Models for the design development, engineering and construction of the Multihalle for the 1975 Bundesgartenschau in Mannheim<br> SECTION D -<br> PHYSICAL MODELS USED IN NON-STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES<br> 23 Bill Addis: The historical use of physical model testing in free-surface hydraulic engineering<br> 24 Bill Addis: The historical use of physical model testing in wind engineering<br> 25 Bill Addis: The historical use of physical model testing in earthquake engineering<br> 26 Raf Orlowski: The historical use of models in the acoustic design of buildings<br> 27 Bill Craig: Geotechnical centrifuge models ? a history of their role in pre-construction design<br> SECTION E -<br> PHYSICAL MODELLING IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY<br> 28 Mamoru Kawaguchi: Physical models as powerful weapons in structural design<br> 29 Bruce Martin: Physical modelling of structures for contemporary building design <br> 30 David Wendland: Using physical models in the design of complex masonry structures<br> 31 James Sutherland: Physical modelling of free surface water ? current practice<br> 32 Francesco Dorigatti: Boundary-layer wind tunnel model testing ? current practice<br> 33 Amarnath Kasalanati: Model testing using shake tables ? current practice<br> 34 Raf Orlowski: The use of physical models in acoustic design ? current practice<br> 35 David White: Geotechnical centrifuge modelling ? current practice<br> 36 Owen Connick: Water-bath modelling ? small-scale simulation of natural ventilation flows<br> 37 Jan Knippers: The use of biological models for building engineering design<br> 38 Mamoru Kawaguchi: Flying a 100 metre long Jumbo Koinobori<br> 39 Dirk Buhler & Christiane Weber: Epilogue: A future for models from the past<br> <br> APPENDICES -<br> Earliest writings in engineering literature about scaling and the use of reduced-scale models <br> A1 Original source 15BC Vitruvius.<br> A2 Original source 1638 Galileo.<br> A3 Original source 1772 Leonard Euler.<br> A4Original source 1801 Report on Telford?s arch bridge across the Thames<br> A5 Original source 1846 Short article on models in The Builder.<br> A6 Original source 1847 Short article in Civil Engineer and Architects? Journal.<br> A7 Original source 1887 part of paper by Osborne Reynolds.<br> 100 AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES<br>
Bill Addis, born in 1949, studied engineering sciences and philosophy at the University of Cambridge before working as an engineer in the aerospace industry. He later spent over 15 years in the Department of Construction Management at the University of Reading, and then 15 years as a consulting engineering with the firm Buro Happold in London. He developed his interest in building and civil engineering history, and in the use of model testing during five decades, including work on his doctorate on the history and philosophy of engineering. He has written several books and over a hundred academic papers on the history of building engineering and construction, and has recently been enjoying lecturing and research as a visiting professor in universities in Rome, Innsbruck, San Sebastian, Zurich, Brussels and Munich.
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